Involves direct challenges to a government through legal or political means. Some coalitions, for example, chose to openly protest closing civic space actions by governments, while others chose to take the government to court through strategic litigation. Issues here included security risks for those on the ground, and threats to access for any regional or international groups involved. We found that this mode of solidarity is most effective when combined with other forms and mechanisms within a multilevel strategy. For example if space is closed at the national level, international actors can campaign to raise awareness at the international level (which also provides vital psychological support to those at risk), whilst facilitating provision of resources to local actors such as security training or legal support to those under direct attack, alongside engaging in political or diplomatic engagement whether publicly or behind closed doors. Case studies from Nicaragua and Malawi demonstrate the need for these combined modes of solidarity, including political and legal engagement, from international actors during times of conflict or political and civic strife.