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Combating Information Manipulation: A Playbook for Elections and Beyond

by International Republican Institute; National Democratic Institute; Stanford Internet Observatory

Published | September 2021

Tackling mis- and disinformation


"Combating Information Manipulation" lays out the basics of election manipulation problem, it analyses core elements of responses and points out to trusted resources for those looking to do a deeper dive into a particular type of intervention or threat.

Why read

The playbook helps to address challenges in dealing with information manipulation around elections.


The playbook approach consists of how to (1) identify ongoing information manipulation campaigns; (2) develop real-time and short-term responses; and (3) build long-term resilience to information manipulation. The playbook’s three-part strategy can help in developing rapid and real-time responses, as well as establish long-term and sustainable approaches to building resilience in order to maintain the integrity of elections and strengthen democratic processes.

The guide was created to help leapfrog the first six months of the electoral preparation process.

It is available in English, French, Spanish and Arabic.


Link to website

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