Coalition work has become a popular – and perhaps the most effective – approach to strengthen the enabling environment for civil society. In highly restrictive regimes that we looked at, such as the cases in Nicaragua or Ethiopia, they offered protection, cover and shared risk to participants. They also provide economies of scale through sharing resources: such as technical expertise, joint strategies, or they can help to coordinate responses, providing a unified voice across multiple groups. In some settings, where closing space is more subtle or technical in its manifestation, umbrella bodies or networks can play a vital role in this regard, by collating the experiences and unifying the positions of the many different types of groups affected by the phenomenon. It’s important to note that coalitions don’t have to involve formal, registered institutions, and in some cases, it is preferable if they are less formal. This can help to bridge the work between formal organisations and social movements.